Since you have now learned the most common notes that a beginner guitar player should learn, we can fill in the final guitar string notes and positions. First though, a little bit of terminology that is important to know. A half step on the guitar simply means the next fret on either side of the note you are playing. A whole step is two frets from any note that you are playing. These pictures give an easy example of this:
There are actually only 12 notes on the guitar, but they are found in many different positions within the two octaves of the instruments neck. Most guitars have 22 frets which is just short of a complete two octaves (that would require 24 frets which some guitars do have). The information in part 1 and part 2 in this series of guitar lessons for beginners focused on how to find the notes you want to play on the guitar based on learning these positions.
Every note will have a sharp except for B and E. If you look at the notes on the guitar neck starting from the open E for example it goes: E, F, F# and so forth. There is no E sharp note. The same is true if you take the B note from the 5th string 2nd fret, it goes from B to C to C# with no sharp between B and C. All the other notes will have a sharp between them.
So using the sixth string open E for an example you can learn how to quickly tell what any of the notes on the guitar are by using the guitar dot position markers. From the open string this would look like this: E, F, F#, G, G#, A, A#, B, C, C#, D, D# and back to an E note at the 12th fret. Going from the E note to the next E note completes the octave. An octave simply means that you can take any note and then count up 12 half steps on the guitar completing this pattern up to the note of the same name as the original one you started on. There are 12 notes in music theory on the guitar and they always follow this same pattern no matter which string or fret position that you start on.
Another example would be if you started on the fifth string open A. Each half step note would be as follows: A, A#, B, C, C#, D, D#, E, F, F#, G, G# and A at the 12th fret to complete the octave. You can apply this pattern to any of the open guitar strings and you can apply it any note or position on the guitar. These same notes will always follow this same pattern.